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Faced with the overwhelming armed opposition, Amanullah Khan abdicated in January 1929, and soon after Kabul fell to Saqqawist forces led by Habibullah Kalakani. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. One exception is the Kabul River which flows in an easternly direction to the Indus ending at the Indian Ocean. Da Afghanistan Bank serves as the central bank of the nation[272] and the "Afghani" (AFN) is the national currency, with an exchange rate of about 75 Afghanis to 1 US dollar. [136][137] During the initial invasion, US and UK forces bombed al-Qaeda training camps, and later working with the Northern Alliance, the Taliban regime came to an end. Important dams include the Kajaki Dam, Dahla Dam, and the Sardeh Band Dam. [203] English is also understood by some of the population,[204] and has been gaining popularity as of the 2000s. [240] The functions of provincial councils are to take part in provincial development planning and to participate in the monitoring and appraisal of other provincial governance institutions. The team eventually made it and played in the 2015 Cricket World Cup. [224] Loya jirgas have been held since at least 1747,[225] with the most recent one occurring in 2013. [67], By the early 19th century, the Afghan empire was under threat from the Persians in the west and the Sikh Empire in the east. It quickly turned into a proxy war as the Pakistani government provided these rebels with covert training centers, the United States supported them through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI),[87] and the Soviet Union sent thousands of military advisers to support the PDPA regime. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast. The backbone of Afghanistan's road network is Highway 1, often called the "Ring Road", which extends for 2,210 kilometers (1,370 mi) and connects five major cities: Kabul, Ghazni, Kandahar, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif,[321] with spurs to Kunduz and Jalalabad and various border crossings, while skirting around the mountains of the Hindu Kush. There are also provincial councils that are elected through direct and general elections for four years. [88] Meanwhile, there was increasingly hostile friction between the competing factions of the PDPA – the dominant Khalq and the more moderate Parcham. [232][233] In the same period, Afghanistan became the 30th highest nation in terms of female representation in the National Assembly. There are a number of smaller regional languages, including Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi, and Nuristani. Of the reported honor killings, 21% were committed by the victims' husbands, 7% by their brothers, 4% by their fathers, and the rest by other relatives. The GFP list makes use of over 50 factors in our in-house formula to determine a given nation's Power Index ('PwrIndx') score. Muslims brought Islam to Sassanian-held Herat and Zaranj in the mid-7th century, while fuller Islamization was achieved between the 9th and 12th centuries under the Saffarid, Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Ghurid dynasties. The Afghan Pashto literature, although quantitatively remarkable and in great growth in the last century, has always had an essentially local meaning and importance, feeling the influence of both Persian literature and the contiguous literatures of India. Their efforts to bring Afghanistan into the Central Powers failed, but it caused discontent among the population for keeping neutrality against the British. This provides the final ranking while also allowing smaller, more technologically-advanced, nations to … [338] Former Education Minister Ghulam Farooq Wardak had stated that construction of 8,000 schools is required for the remaining children who are deprived of formal learning. It has $2.8 billion in external debt. Coming from Iran, the trail traveled through various Afghan provinces and cities including Herat, Kandahar and Kabul before crossing to northern Pakistan, northern India, and Nepal. [259][260], Homosexuality is taboo in Afghan society;[261] according to the Penal Code, homosexual intimacy is punished by up to a year in prison. This was a standard divide and rule policy of the British and would lead to strained relations, especially with the later new state of Pakistan. [242] It enjoys cordial relations with a number of NATO and allied nations, particularly the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Turkey. [415] Later that year, the country's cricket team followed as it won the 2009–10 ICC Intercontinental Cup. Soon after, the Persian and Afghan forces invaded India. The first Afghan newspaper was published in 1873,[386] and there are hundreds of print outlets today. [9] The Ministry of Public Health plans to cut the infant mortality rate to 400 for every 100,000 live births before 2020. [403], Afghanistan's official New Year starts with Nowruz, an ancient tradition that started as a Zoroastrian celebration in present-day Iran, and with which it shares the annual celebration along with several other countries. A key force behind these reforms was Mahmud Tarzi, an ardent supporter of the education of women. This (along with other factors such as returning refugees) caused rapid population growth in the 2000s that has only recently started to slow down. [265][266][267], On August 14, 2020, UN Human Rights Council experts issued a joint statement urging Afghanistan officials to prevent the killings of human rights defenders as there have been nine deaths of human rights defenders since January 2020. [220] A January 2010 report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime revealed that bribery consumed an amount equal to 23% of the GDP of the nation. Carpet weaving is an ancient practice in Afghanistan, and many of these are still handmade by tribal and nomadic people today. [412] Several international celebrations are also officially held in Afghanistan, such as International Workers' Day and International Women's Day. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak, a local Ghilzai tribal leader, successfully rebelled against the Safavids. [278] An estimated 400,000 people enter the labor market each year. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest by the Greco-Bactrians. [189], Gazelles, wild pigs and jackals populate the steppe plains of the south and west, while mongoose and cheetahs exist in the semi-desert south. In April 1978, the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) seized power in a bloody coup d'état against then-President Mohammed Daoud Khan, in what is called the Saur Revolution. The GFP country comparison form is provided to allow you to make direct, side-by-side comparisons of any two world powers represented in the GFP database. Military Strength and Comparison 28,812 views. [316], The city of Ghazni has significant history and historical sites, and together with Bamyan city have in recent years been voted Islamic Cultural Capital and South Asia Cultural Capital respectively. [196] About 23.9% of them are urbanite, 71.4% live in rural areas, and the remaining 4.7% are nomadic. [281], Afghanistan is a member of WTO, SAARC, ECO, and OIC. The attacks are the latest in relentless violence in Afghanistan. [222][223], One instrument of Afghan governance is the loya jirga (grand assembly), a Pashtun consultative meeting that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war. After the end Third Anglo-Afghan War and the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi on 19 August 1919, King Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan a sovereign and fully independent state. [387] Voice of America, BBC, and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) broadcast in both of Afghanistan's official languages on radio. [37][38] There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. MOGHKHAIL, Afghanistan — The A-29 attack plane was a white speck in the bright skies over eastern Afghanistan as it launched a dummy bomb that exploded just yards from the target, a … [185] The last strong earthquakes were in 1998, which killed about 6,000 people in Badakhshan near Tajikistan. A 2010 earthquake left 11 Afghans dead, over 70 injured, and more than 2,000 houses destroyed. In 2013, Afghanistan's football team followed as it won the SAFF Championship.[417]. [212] Afghan Christians, who number 500–8,000, practice their faith secretly due to intense societal opposition, and there are no public churches. The ethnicities are represented on the table on the right. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan; among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 96th largest, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 169th out of 186 countries as of 2018. By 1747, the Afghans chose Durrani as their head of state. Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province functioned as an organisational and networking base for the anti-Soviet Afghan resistance, with the province's influential Deobandi ulama playing a major supporting role in promoting the 'jihad'. [35], Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. [251] Afghanistan's opium poppy harvest produces more than 90% of illicit heroin globally, and more than 95% of the European supply. An Outline of the History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722–1922)", "Great Britain's Great Game: An Introduction", In Defence of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East, 1775–1842, "Afghan Women Hope for More Gains Under New Administration – Afghanistan", https://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/east/01/21/afghan.rail/index.html, "Afghanistan: History Of 1973 Coup Sheds Light On Relations With Pakistan", "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths", "Genocide and the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan", "Landmines in Afghanistan: A Decades Old Danger", "Refugee Admissions Program for Near East and South Asia", "Afghanistan: Land Mines From Afghan-Soviet War Leave Bitter Legacy (Part 2)", 'Mujahidin vs. Communists: Revisiting the battles of Jalalabad and Khost, "Blood-Stained Hands, Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity", "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001", "Afghanistan: The massacre in Mazar-i Sharif. Despite the Pashtuns having been dominant in Afghan politics for centuries, Dari remained the preferred language for government and bureaucracy.[202]. [221], On 17 May 2020, President Ashraf Ghani reached a power-sharing deal with his rival from presidential elections, Abdullah Abdullah, deciding on who would manage the respected key ministries. The country has four international airports: Hamid Karzai International Airport (formerly Kabul International Airport), Kandahar International Airport, Herat International Airport, and Mazar-e Sharif International Airport. Habibullah was assassinated during a hunting trip in 1919, and Amanullah Khan eventually assumed power. Afghanistan contains many remnants from all ages, including Greek and Buddhist stupas, monasteries, monuments, temples and Islamic minarets. They gave primacy to a strong military, centralized government control from Kabul, and signaled the primacy of the Pashtun as the country’s ruling group. Parts of the region were later ruled by the Khwarazmian, Khalji, Timurid, Lodi, Sur, Mughal, and Safavid empires. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. [391] Many Bollywood film stars have roots in Afghanistan, including Salman Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, Aamir Khan, Feroz Khan, Kader Khan, Naseeruddin Shah, Zarine Khan, Celina Jaitly, and a number of others. He was replaced in 1953 by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's cousin and brother-in-law, and a Pashtun nationalist who sought the creation of a Pashtunistan, leading to highly tense relations with Pakistan. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Non-Aligned Movement. [40], Alexander the Great and his Macedonian forces arrived in Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia a year earlier in the Battle of Gaugamela. The traditional and the national sport of Afghanistan is buzkashi, mainly popular in the north, but also having a following in other parts of the country. A popular theme in Afghan folklore and mythology are devs, monstrous creatures. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan Army was equipped by the Soviet Union. [395] The dance is considered part of Afghan identity. [120][121] During their rule, the Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes. [419] The national team plays its home games at the Ghazi Stadium in Kabul, while football in Afghanistan is governed by the Afghanistan Football Federation. 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